- What are some examples of barriers to entry?
- What makes a cartel successful?
- What happens to price when a cartel is broken up?
- What is a monopolistically competitive firm?
- What does oligopoly mean?
- What is the origin of the word cartel?
- Can cartels be good?
- Why are cartels bad for consumers?
- Why do cartels usually not last very long?
- What is formal cartel?
- Why do cartels tend to be unstable and eventually fall apart?
- What cartel is the most powerful?
- How do cartels affect the economy?
- How do you break cartels?
- Why do cartels usually fail?
- How cartels cause inefficiencies in the market?
What are some examples of barriers to entry?
Examples of Barriers to EntrySoft drinks – brand loyalty.
Some firms have high degrees of brand loyalty.
Gold – Geographical barriers.
Pharmaceutical drugs / patents.
Printer ink cartridges.
Major airlines with landing slots at major airports.
Facebook – The first firm to gain a foothold in an industry..
What makes a cartel successful?
Successful cartels depend on the ability of members to overcome two challenges: (1) coordinating an agreement amongst themselves (selecting and coordinating profitable collusive pricing strategies and monitoring behavior to prevent defection) and (2) deterring the entry of other firms into the market (see for instance …
What happens to price when a cartel is broken up?
1. As the cartel forms, prices are supposed to rise as the cartel restricts supply. When the government prosecutes and breaks up the cartel, in theory, prices are supposed to go back to roughly pre-cartel levels as competition is restored.
What is a monopolistically competitive firm?
Monopolistic competition characterizes an industry in which many firms offer products or services that are similar, but not perfect substitutes. Barriers to entry and exit in a monopolistic competitive industry are low, and the decisions of any one firm do not directly affect those of its competitors.
What does oligopoly mean?
Oligopoly is a market structure with a small number of firms, none of which can keep the others from having significant influence. The concentration ratio measures the market share of the largest firms. A monopoly is one firm, a duopoly is two firms and an oligopoly is two or more firms.
What is the origin of the word cartel?
Etymology. The word “cartel” has its root in the Greek χάρτης (= papyrus scroll, paper, map) and came about the Latin “charta” (see Magna Carta, the English medieval law), the Italian “cartello” (diminutive of carta = paper, map) and the French “cartel” into the English and German language.
Can cartels be good?
average total costs, cartels encourage investment and productivity growth. Thus, in the long run they can have positive efficiency effects, as increased productivity growth allows for lower prices and increased output‖ (Levenstein & Suslow).
Why are cartels bad for consumers?
Cartels have a negative effect on consumers because their existence results in higher prices and restricted supply. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has made the detection and prosecution of cartels one of its primary policy objectives.
Why do cartels usually not last very long?
Cartels may also sustain inefficient firms in an industry and prevent the adoption of cost-saving technological advances that would result in lower prices. Though a cartel tends to establish price stability as long as it lasts, it does not typically last long.
What is formal cartel?
A cartel is a formal agreement among firms in an oligopolistic industry. Cartel members may agree on such matters as prices, total industry output, market shares, allocation of customers, allocation of territories, bid-rigging, establishment of common sales agencies, and the division of profits or combination of these.
Why do cartels tend to be unstable and eventually fall apart?
Game theory indicates that cartels are inherently unstable. Each individual member has an incentive to cheat in order to make higher profits in the short run. Cheating may lead to the collapse of a cartel. With the collapse, firms would revert to competing, which would lead to decreased profits.
What cartel is the most powerful?
the Sinaloa CartelThe United States Intelligence Community considers the Sinaloa Cartel “the most powerful, vicious and feared drug cartel in the world” and “the most powerful criminal organization in Mexico.”
How do cartels affect the economy?
A significant attraction of cartels to producers is that they set rules that members follow, thus reducing risks that would exist without the cartel. The negative effects on consumers include: Higher prices – cartel members can all raise prices together, which reduces the elasticity of demand for any single member.
How do you break cartels?
How to break a cartel in Reverse Auction processThe cartel may decide to increase the pricing cohesively.The cartel may decide to boycott the auction partially or completely, either by not quoting for some of the items or all of the items in the auction.
Why do cartels usually fail?
The common explanation for the instability of cartels is that a successful cartel agreement creates strong incentives for individual members to cheat. Cheating invites retaliation and the result is that the cartel often fails.
How cartels cause inefficiencies in the market?
This type of anti-competitive contract commonly creates artificial scarcity by reducing output and raising prices, thereby offering buyers less for more. Apart from this allocative inefficiency, cartels may give rise to productive and dynamic inefficiencies.